February 03, 2016

Prepositions (DAY 30-32)

PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions is one area where people make many mistakes. Study the following rules carefully. They are simple and examples also have been given. Write one example for each rule.
Prepositions – Time
English                         Usage                                           Example

on               days of the week                                      on Monday

in                 months / seasons                                     in August / in winter
                    time of day                                               in the morning
                    year                                                          in 2006
                    after a certain period of time (when?)     in an hour

at                 for night                                                    at night
                    for weekend                                             at the weekend
                    a certain point of time (when?)                at half past nine

since           from a certain point of time (past till now)    since 1980

for               over a certain period of time (past till now)   for 2 years

ago              a certain time in the past                          2 years ago

before         earlier than a certain point of time           before 2004

to                 telling the time                                          ten to six (5.50)

past             telling the time                                          ten past six (6.10)

to/till/until     making the beginning and                        from Monday to/till Friday
                    end of a period of time                            

till / until       in the sense of how long                          He is on holiday until Friday.
                    something is going to last                        

by                in the sense of at the latest up                 I will be back by 6PM.
                    to a certain time                                       By 11Am, I had read 5 pages.

Prepositions - Place (Position and Direction) 
in

Usage  -           room, building, street, town, country
                        book, paper etc.
                        car, taxi
                        picture, world

Example          in the kitchen, in London
                        in the book
                        in the car, in a taxi
                        in the picture, in the world

at

Usage              meaning next to, by an object
                        for table
                        for events
                        place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)

Example          at the door, at the station
                        at the table
                        at a concert, at the party
                        at the cinema, at school, at work

on       

Usage -           attached
                        for a place with a river
                        being on a surface
                        for a certain side (left, right)
                        for a floor in a house
                        for public transport
                        for television, radio
                        the picture on the wall

Example         London lies on the Thames.
                        on the table
                        on the left
                        on the first floor
                        on the bus, on a plane
                        on TV, on the radio
                        by, next to, beside
                        left or right of somebody or something
                        Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

under

Usage             on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

Example         the bag is under the table

below

Usage             lower than something else but above ground

Example         the fish are below the surface

over

Usage             covered by something else
                        meaning more than
                        getting to the other side (also across)
                        overcoming an obstacle

Example         put a jacket over your shirt
                        over 16 years of age
                        walk over the bridge
                        climb over the wall

above

Usage             higher than something else, but not directly over it

Example         a path above the lake

across

Usage             getting to the other side (also over)
                        getting to the other side

Example         walk across the bridge
                        swim across the lake

through

Usage             something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

Example         drive through the tunnel

to

Usage              movement to person or building
                        movement to a place or country
                        for bed

Example          go to the cinema
                        go to London / Ireland
                        go to bed

into

Usage              enter a room / a building

Example          go into the kitchen / the house

towards

Usage              movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

Example          go 5 steps towards the house

onto

Usage              movement to the top of something

Example          jump onto the table

from

Usage              in the sense of where from

Example          a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions
from

Usage              who gave it

Example          a present from Jane

of

Usage              who/what does it belong to
                        what does it show

Example          a page of the book
                        the picture of a palace


by

Usage              who made it
Example          a book by Mark Twain

on

Usage              walking or riding on horseback
                        entering a public transport vehicle

Example          on foot, on horseback
                        get on the bus

in

Usage              entering a car  / Taxi
Example          get in the car

off

Usage              leaving a public transport vehicle

Example          get off the train

out of

Usage              leaving a car  / Taxi

Example          get out of the taxi

by

Usage              rise or fall of something
                        travelling (other than walking or horseriding)

Example          prices have risen by 10 percent
                        by car, by bus

at

Usage              for age

Example          she learned Russian at 45

about

Usage              for topics, meaning what about
Example          we were talking about you

Exercise - 1

Test your knowledge of the prepositions in / at / to / nothing - showing place and movement. Choose either in, at, to, or nothing.

1.         He lives ............... Zielona Gora.

2.         She went ............... home.

3.         Piotrek works ............... Gorzów Wlkp.

4.         He went ............... his friend's house.

5.         She arrived ............... Manchester for the celebrations.

6.         I'm going to stay ............... home this weekend.

7.         Joanna works ............... the hospital.

8.         Why don't we go ............... the movies tonight?

9.         I'm going to see Hania ............... France this summer.

10.       I arrived ............... work early this morning.

11.       She came home ............... early.

12.       We stayed ............... the Mieszko Hotel.

13.       They visited ............... England last summer.

14.       She's going to travel ............... Finland this summer.

15.       I'll be ............... school later today.

Exercises 2

Test you knowledge of the prepositions for / while / during. Choose either for, while or during.

1.         He's been working ............... three weeks.

2.         I fell asleep ............... the film.

3.         Did you see Donata ............... your holiday?

4.         We talked ............... an hour.

5.         He watched TV ............... I cooked.

6.         ............... our stay in London, we visited a lot of museums.

7.         What did you do ............... you were in London?

8.         I think I need to study Polish ............... a few months before I go there.

9.         I came up with a great idea ............... I was thinking about my class.

10.       They drove through the countryside ............... they were staying in France.

11.       He was out of work ............... six months before he found a new job.

12.       I broke my finger ............... I was playing squash.

13.       Please, don't interrupt the teacher ............... he is speaking.

14.       Magda broke into tears ............... the film.

15.       Could you hold on ............... a few moments?

Exercises 3

Test you knowledge of the prepositions in / at / on - showing time and date. Choose either in, at or on.

1.         Let's meet ............... seven o'clock.

2.         He was born ............... July.

3.         I went there ............... 1998.

4.         She'll be at work ............... Thursday.

5.         We met ............... Christmas day.

6.         They drove to Barlinek ............... September 15th.

7.         We arrived in this country ............... September.

8.         I love to go shopping ............... Christmas time.

9.         We get up early ............... the morning.

10.       Do you dream ............... night?

11.       What do you like doing ............... weekends?

12.       He's working on his homework ............... the moment.

13.       I lived in Holland ............... the 1990s.

14.       I'll see you ............... a few weeks.

15.       We like going to the cinema ............... Fridays.

Exercises 4

Choose “of, for, at, in, during” and fill in the blanks.

1.         She wasn't short, she wasn't tall; she was ............... average height.

2.         What are you going to buy Hania ............... her birthday?

3.         The police are looking ............... a tall, black man who was seen standing outside the bank just before the robbery took place.

4.         The teacher asked the class to do the exercise ............... the bottom of page 12.

5.         As a child I was always ashamed ............... my parents because they were uneducated.

6.         I was always very good ............... Geography when I was at school.

7.         My uncle specializes in ................

8.         We arrived ............... Gorzów at 3.30 in the morning.

9.         I didn't see you ............... the party on Saturday.

10.       There was a lot of coughing ............... the performance of Moniusko's 'Fairy Tale' symphony.

11.       He saw her as the most attractive woman ............... the world.

12.       Simon is completely useless ............... sports.