**In this module categories and the constituents which are considered as the objects of syntax (phrase and clause formation) are discussed.
**A category is a minimal unit in syntax that selects a particular word or lexical item to be put under it.
**Lexical items that share properties are combined into the same category.
**According to the typologists Parts of Speech comprises of ten traditional categories, namely Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Pronoun, Preposition/Ad position, Conjunction Numeral, Article, and Interjection.
**Syntacticians primarily distinguish categories into lexical categories eg. noun, verb, preposition and adjective.
**Cognitive view on categories entails that categories correspond to a set of entities featuring identical properties and they tend to exhibit a prototype structure.
**Part of speech acts like how a word is going to function in the sentence.
**The current argument shows that the categories can be identified in terms of their morphological and syntactic distribution in a language.
**Two sets of rules in grammar can explain the categories, categorial rules and lexical rules.
**A constituent is a group of words that functions together as a unit. NP,VP, ADJP, AdvP and PPs are all called constituents.
**If a group words can be replaced by single word or lexical item then the group of words will qualify as a constituent. This test is called as replacement test.
**If a group words can be produced as an answer to a question, then that group of words can form one constituent.
**In case a group of words can be moved within a sentence then that will confirm the group as a constituent. iii) Constituency hood can also be attested through passivization.
** Ellipsis test is widely used for the constituency hood of the VP. In this test, the VP is dropped from the second clause and replaced with did so too.
**Coordinate structures are constituents linked by a conjunction like and - or. Only constituents of the same syntactic category can be conjoined.
INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS & PHONETICS - CATEGORIES AND CONSTITUENTS