August 27, 2019

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- INCLUSION COMPOUNDS


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- INCLUSION COMPOUNDS



** An inclusion compound or an inclusion complex maybe defined as: 'A complex which comprises of one component (the host) forming a cavity. In the case of a crystal, it consists of a crystal lattice containing spaces in the shape of long tunnels or channels in which molecular entities of a second chemical species (the guest) are located. There exists no covalent bonding between the guest and host, the attraction being mainly attributed due to Van der Waals forces. ** Mylius observed Inclusion compounds for the first time in 1886. They appeared as unusual complexations occurring between hydroquinone and several volatile as compounds.

** A more convenient and workable classification, utilized in this review, is based upon the organization of inclusion compounds by their structure and properties as follows: 1 Polymolecular inclusion compounds -Channel-like spaces -Cage-like spaces 2. Monomolecular inclusion compounds 3. Products of the blue-iodine reaction 4. Macromolecular inclusion compounds.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- CROWN ETHERS, COMPLEXES AND CRYPTANDS


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- CROWN ETHERS, COMPLEXES AND CRYPTANDS


** Crypts and crown ethers constitute an important and an interesting class of complexing ligands.

** When the Nobel was conferred upon the three chemists Pederson, Cram and Lehn in 1987, the advances in host guest and supramolecular chemistry gained special attention.

** The crowns and crypts are enormously studied due to their increasing applications varied chemical and physical processes. Their use as biochemical models further draws greater interest towards them.

** Crown ethers (or crowns) are known as a group of macrocyclic polyethers. Many macropolycyclic ligands which are related to each other are also known to us and are called as 'cryptates' (or cryptands or simply, crypts)

** The two rings of cryptand provide extra strength to hold the ion. In case a regular crown ether "surrounds" an ion, a cryptand "locks it up". This ion-capturing capability of a cryptand can reach upto a hundred thousand times more than that of 18-crown-6.

** Crowns and crypts find many important applications and uses. These include preparative organic chemistry, solvent extraction, phase transfer catalysis, stabilisation of uncommon or reactive oxidation states and the promotion of other improbable reactions.




August 24, 2019

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- HOMOAROMATICITY


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- HOMOAROMATICITY


**A homoaromatic molecules showed discontinuity in the p orbital overlap due to the presence of a single sp³ hybridized atom, so we can say that those compounds where the stable configuration systems with (4n+2) π e can only be formd by bypassing One saturated sp³ hybridized carbon atom leads to homoaromaticity.

** The homotropylium cation (C8H9) is the best studied example of a homoaromatic compound. 

**Criteria for a compourd to be homoaroatic are :

#The molecule should posses one or more homoconjagative interactions. 

#A closed cyclic system must show electron delocalization.

#The member of π-electrons participating in cyclic electron delocalization should be close to 4n +2.

#No-bond homoaromatic systems should posses exceptional magnetic properties #Homoaromaticity should have resonance anergy greater than 2 leak mol¹ which leads to stabilization. 

**Classify the homoaromatic compounds depending on the type of interactions as no bond homoaromatics, sigma bond homoaromatics and homoarcmatics having transannular homoconjugative interactions. **Examples of homoaromatics including cationic, neutral and anionic homoaromatic compounds.


 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- AROMATICITY OF FUSED RINGS


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- AROMATICITY OF FUSED RINGS

**A fused aromatic ring is one which shares one side of the ring. These are monocyclic rings that shares their connecting bond.

** Fused ring systems arc classified into two categories depending on the number of atoms and bonds shared by the rings. 

Orho-fused rings-If the two rings of the fused system that have only two atoms and one bond is common between the rings. Ortho and peri fused rings-If three atoms are common between the first ring and the other two rings then it is said to be Ortho and pert fused rings. 

**The criteria for the aromaticity in the fused rings also follows the same rule as applied to the monocyclic systems. 

1. It is cyclic, planar and has continuous delocalization of π electrons (electrons in p orbitals) with or without the participation of lone pair(s)/- charge/ + charge (Le., having electrons or vacant p orbital). 

2. The delocalized π-electron cloud must contain a total of (4n+2) π electrons, where n is a whole number (i.e., n =0.1,2,3 and so on) 

**Aromaticity of some benzenoid fused rings like naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. 

**The resonance energy of fused system is generally less than of the number of benzene ring present in that system. 

**Aromaticity of some non-benzenoid fused rings like azulene and oxaazulanones. **Aromaticity of some way ergy of fused system is generally less than of the number of benzene special molecules like phenalene, ferrocene and benzo cyclobutadiene.

 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- ANNULENES


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- ANNULENES

**Annulenes are the completely conjugated monocyclic hydrocarbons containing an even number of carbon atoms. They have the general formula CnHn (when n is an even number) or Cn.Hn+1 (when n is an odd number) 

**The first 3 members of the series, (4]-, [6]-, and [8]-annulene but you must have used their name as 1,3- cyclobutadiene, benzene and 1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene. 

**Annulenes could be aromatic, anti aromatic or non-aromatic.

#[4] Annulene: anti-aromatic 

#[6] Annulene: aromatic 

#[81 Annulene: non-aromatic

#[10] Annulene: non-aromatic 

#[12] Annulene anti-aromatic 

#[14] Annulene: anti-aromatic.

#[18] Annulene: aromatic. 

**The following bridgehead [10] annulenes are aromatic: 

#9,10 methane [10] annulene 

#9,10 oxa [10] annulerne 

#9,10 aza [10] annulene 

**Preparation of [14] annulene, [18] annulene and 9,10-methane [10] annulene from simple and easily available molecules.


 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- AROMATICITY –PART-1


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- I (NATURE OF BONDING AND STEREOCHEMISTRY)- AROMATICITY –PART-1

These compounds exhibit significantly high diamagnetic susceptibility. Cyclic electron delocalization also results in bond length equalization, abnormal chemical shifts and magnetic anisotropies, as well as chemical and physical properties which reflect energetic stabilization. On the other hand, compounds with high paramagnetic susceptibility may be antiaromatic. 

**Huckel's rule can be used to determine whether a molecule is aromatic or anti-aromatic by broadly two conditions. 

* It is cyclic, planar and has continuous delocalization of π electrons (electrons in p orbitals) with or without the participation of lone pair(s)/- charge/ + charge (i.e having electrons or vacant p orbital). 

* The delocalised π-electron cloud must contain a total of (4n+2)π electrons, where n is a whole number (i.e., n= 0,1,2,3 and so on) **If in the second condition there are 4n π electrons, it is anti-aromatic.

** If the first condition is not fully met,it is aliphatic. 

**The term non-aromatic is applicable to both aliphatic as well as anti-aromatic. **Aromaticity is the state of stability that any molecule would thrive to achieve. These molecules are cyclic, planar and have (4n+2)π electrons continuously delocalised in a cyclic manner.

 

July 04, 2019

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July 02, 2019

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May 03, 2019

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April 02, 2019

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March 31, 2019

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ADIABATIC PLUG FLOW REACTORS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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UNSTEADY STATE MFR AND PFR (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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PFR AND MFR IN SERIES (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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REACTOR DESIGN FOR MFR AND COMBINATION OF REACTORS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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CONTD. AND LATER REACTOR DESIGN OF PFR (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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GAS PHASE HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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KINETICS OF HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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KINETICS OF HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS PART II (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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KINETICS OF HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS PART I (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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BASICS OF KINETICS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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BASICS OF MIXED FLOW REACTORS (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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DESIGN OF PLUG FLOW REACTORS PART II (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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DESIGN OF PLUG FLOW REACTORS PART I (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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BASICS OF PLUG FLOW REACTOR PART II (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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DESIGN OF BATCH REACTORS PART II (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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DESIGN OF BATCH REACTORS PART I (CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-1)


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