ICT-HISTORY

HISTORY




History is the record of men's past. Why do we need to know that ? If we do not understand the past, how in the world would we understand the present because after all the present is the end result of all of the past ?!

History makes us understand the present clearly and completely and more, it shows us what we must do and not do to secure our future. in that sense, history is the timeless prophetic voice without which we would perish...

a study of history is filled with discoveries of why the present is what it is and it is a fascinating study.

in this section we give you that flavour of history and you will emerge with wisdom and understanding and holistic power. History is deeply linked with philosohy and science too and thus history would integrate all the contents of the site!

Happy learning and discovery!



HISTORY TOPICS – TURNING POINTS

Early man & Discovery of agriculture

Egyptian civilization

Other Ancient Civilizations,

The Greeks and The Birth of Philosophy, 

The Roman Empire, 

The Coming of Jesus, 

The enshrining of Christianity as an official religion in the Roman Empire, 

The Dark Ages, 

The Birth and Spread of Islam

The Renaissance, 

The Scientific Revolution,

The American Revolution 

The French Revolution

The Industrial Revolution 

Imperialism 

The Russian revolution,

World war- 1 

World war2

Cold war

Capitalism and Socialism, 

The Fall of Russia.


The world today


*****HISTORY*****


EARLY MAN AND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

        Have you ever wondered how man lived in the very beginning, when he had no knowledge to survive, no ideas by which he could create food and other essentials needed for his survival and no understanding of how the world worked or even what he was?

That was the early man and he came into being, a full man just like you and me, only 50000 years back. From then on for 40000 years his was a brute struggle to secure his food and survive. He had no knowledge of agriculture, of making his food by planting seeds. He had only very crude pointed stones as instruments, a crude language to communicate with his fellow beings , fire and his brute muscles.

Hence all that he could really do was to eat whatever he found in one place and after exhausting that, moving on to another place and then to another and so on. So he had no alternative but to be a nomad.

He moved in groups and went on and on in search for food. He also learnt how to live in groups, to take care of children and old men but when it became difficult for anyone to move , that person perished.

He protected himself from animals and extreme cold by fire but his daily life was still a terrible struggle.

That was the early man. For thousands of years he lived like this and survived. The miracle is that he survived during such a period when conditions for living were extremely hostile and there was no knowledge of survival.

Around 10000 years back, by accidental observation, the early man must have seen a pattern in the birth and growth of plants and he must have observed that seeds grew into plants and that this could be done by him. Thus was born the first power – the power of agriculture.

Agriculture revolutionized man’s life in many ways. Now he no longer needed to be nomadic. He could settle down in one place. This period of his life is called Neolithic period and the earlier period, before the discovery of agriculture, is called Paleolithic period.

In the Neolithic period, man also needed to learn to live together in a group peacefully and cooperate with each other and share work. Thus he had to be wise and think about ways and rules which all should follow for all to live together. Thus was born the rudiments of social living and also morality.

Man also needed to now protect himself from other men so a kind of head and regulator of affairs was needed. Also the priest came into existence as he supposedly knew the dark unknown that men faced. After all nothing was known then about the world. So there was an intrepretor who laid down rules and rituals for all- right or wrong. Thus was born in crude form, culture, religion and political organization.


These evolved over time and finally led to the birth of civilizations in the great river valleys. . Civilizations are large areas of land with a common political head, a certain common economic activity, common culture and large scale trading and division of labour.



EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION

INTRODUCTION

                  Egypt has been called the gift of the Nile. This is entirely true. The narrow strip of land on both sides of the Nile is fertile but the western part of North Africa is desert land. Except for that strip, along the Nile, cultivation is difficult.

The Nile has 2 tributaries. One of the extraordinary features of the Nile are its floods. These floods are remarkably regular and come between 15 August and early September. The floods come and when they leave they leave a rich, fertile layer of soil. This is the reason why a large center of civilization came in the whole area surrounding the Nile.


BRIEF  EGYPTIAN POLITICAL HISTORY


The history of Egypt in the ancient days can be divided into 3 periods. They are the Old kingdom, the Middle kingdom and the New kingdom. It was in the old kingdom that the great pyramids were constructed. Memphis was the capital in the Old kingdom. In the Old kingdom and Middle kingdom, many kings or Pharaohs ruled and there were advances in arts, science and typical forms of religion.

In the 13 century BC, a violent tribe called Hyksos invaded Egypt and conquered the land. They were nomadic and less advanced but they had war chariots and bronze weapons and thus won their victory easily. However, their rule was not very long and the Egyptians regained their land and that marked the new kingdom. The Egyptians also now adopted the horse drawn chariot and became tactical in warfare and conquered many lands. Arts and sciences too continued to develop.


EGYPTIAN SOCIAL CLASSES - FROM PHARAOH TO SLAVE


One of the things about the ancient Egyptian civilization was the reverence with which the Pharaoh i.e. the king was held by the people. The One of the distinctive Pharaoh was all powerful and a god and whatever he decreed was followed. He was the owner and the law of the land. People built temples with Pharaohs as gods. Next in the hierarchy were the priests, officials, artists and craftsmen. Next came the farmers who lived away from the cities. The lowest class was the slaves class who were usually prisoners of war and owned by the king. 


THE DAILY ACTIVITIES, ARTS AND CRAFTS IN ANCIENT EGYPT


The Egyptians largely depended on agriculture for their livelihood. The Nile was a great blessing in this regard. The floods of the Nile made the soil fertile every year and in remarkable regularity. The people also built canals so that a wide area could be cultivated. They used oxen to plough their fields. The chief crops were wheat, barley and millet. They also cultivated dates, figs, apples, peaches and mulberries.
The Egyptians also domesticated animals like goats, dogs, asses, pigs, and geese. After the Hyksos  invasion , the horse was also used to draw war chariots.
The Egyptians grew flax in large quantity. They wore linen garments. As the civilization progressed , they began to use metal on a large scale. The Egyptians made beautiful stone vases and there were skilled carpenters who made beautiful furniture with ivory and precious stones embedded. These were preserved in the royal houses.


THE RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF EGYPTIAN PEOPLE


The Egyptians had a primitive form of religion . They believed that there was a god behind every phenomenon of nature. The main god was the sun god. The Egyptians had a strange belief in that they thought that there was life after death for the body also . so they preserved the body carefully. They embalmed the body in spices and then wrapped the body in strips of fine linen.such a body was called a mummy. Along with the body, they put in the coffin all the things that the dead man when alive was fond of. The ordinary people’s coffins were simple but the king’s coffin was costly and even jewellery was put in the coffin. The kings also built huge pyramid to be as tombs for them when they died. These pyramids are architectural marvels but the people had to pay a heavy price for their construction in terms of money wasted. In fact, the decline of kingdoms were often due to these costly ventures.


CONCLUSION


Thus we see a long, stable civilization that lasted for 5000 years where the people had a limited intellectual outlook being largely religious and that too of a primitive kind. There was no deep understanding of human nature or the world yet, but a beginning it truly was and the gift of the Nile ensured its relative stability.